I have listed most quotations in order of appearance within each chapter. The only exceptions are quotations for biographical sketches and medieval myths: these are gathered at the end of each chapter.

Most citations will lead you to translations of medieval sources; a few others provide references to modern authors. Although most cite a specific modern edition, references of works available in multiple editions (such as those of Saint Augustine) are generic so that you can use any modern version.

In some cases, the translation in the textbook differs slightly from that in the citation, so please remember that translators can reasonably disagree on how to render medieval languages into modern English. Each citation leads you to a modern English translation where you can examine the fuller context of the quotation.


"Medieval voting machines," New York Times, November 11, 2000, p. A26.

"Lay dreaming," Jacob Burckhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860; 3rdedition, 1995), p. 87.

"A Monstrous fog," Jules Michelet, La Sorcière (1862), as translated in Satanism and Witchcraft: A Study in Medieval Superstition, trans. A. R. Allinson (1939), p. 16.

"When Adam delved," Thomas Walsingham, Historia Angliana, see translation in A. R. Myers, ed., English Historical Documents, 1327–1485 (1969), p. 141.

Chapter 1: Romans, Christians, and Barbarians

"The more you cut us down," Tertullian, Apologeticus, Chapter 50.

 "What has Athens," Tertullian, The Prescription against Heretics, Chapter 7.

"You are a Ciceronian," Saint Jerome, Letter to Eustochium, 22:30.

"Happy the nose," freely translated from a poem by Sidonius Apollinaris, Carmina, 12 (to

"My tongue sticks to the roof of my mouth," Saint Jerome, Letter to Principia, 127:12.

"Old man of harmless simplicity," anonymous account, available in J. H. Robinson, Readings in European History (1905), pp. 49-51.

 "Charming delivery" and all quotations in the sketch, Augustine, Confessions, Book 5, Chapter 12 and Book 8, Chapters 5–12.

Chapter 2: Early Western Christendom, c. 500-700

"As a corpse to be dragged," G. W. Bowersock et al., eds., Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World (1999), p. ix.

"Producing in perfection," Strabo, Geography, 2.5.26–28.

"Preach to the people with the hand," Cassiodorus, An Introduction to Divine and Human
Readings, Chapter 30.

"Oh, woe, for I travel among strangers," Gregory of Tours, The History of the Franks, II, 42.

"Walked before God with an upright heart," Gregory of Tours, The History of the Franks,
II, 40.

"Hazy zeal," Isidore of Seville as quoted in Kenneth R. Stow, Alienated Minority: The Jews of Medieval Latin Europe (1992), p. 50.

"Both sexes are seen to live together," Ludwig Bieler, ed., The Patrician Texts in the Book of Armagh (1979), p. 187.

"Murmuring," The Rule of St. Benedict, Chapter 5.

"Make a salve," Bald's Leechbook, see Karen Louise Jolly, ed., Popular Religion in Late
Saxon England (1996), p. 159.

"To cut everything," letter from Gregory to Abbot Mellitus, in Bede, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Book I, Chapter 30.

"The Cynocephali," Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, Book XI, Chapter 3.

"Wasted away with afflictions," as quoted in F. Homes Dudden, Gregory the Great: His
Place in History and Thought (1905: reprint, 1967), v. 2, p. 19.

"Now I've copied," Falconer Madan, Books in Manuscript (2nd edition, 1968), p. 54.

"Nursery of bishops," Bede, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Book IV, Chapter 23.

Chapter 3: Neighbors: Byzantium and Islam, c. 500-1000

"Glory to God," as quoted in Rowland J. Mainstone, Hagia Sophia (1988), p. 10.

"Knew not whether," Samuel H. Cross and Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor, eds., The Russian Primary Chronicle (1953), p. 111.

"The prince, a speaker of Arabic," Maria Rosa Menocal, The Arabic Role in Medieval Literary History (1987), p. 2.

"Sons of concubines have become so numerous," as quoted in Philip K. Hitti, History of the Arabs (10th edition, 2002), p. 333.

"In the name of Allah," as quoted in Hitti, History of the Arabs, p. 300.

"Ornament bright," Katharina M. Wilson, ed., Hrotsvit of Gandersheim: A Florilegium of
Her Works (1998), p. 29.

"Their bodies are large," the geographer Masudi, as quoted in Bernard Lewis, The Muslim
Discovery of Europe (1982), p. 139.

"Not like any other women" and other quotes from the sketch, Quran 33:32, 33, and 53.

Chapter 4: Carolingian Europe, c. 700-850

"Take pity on an old man," Thomas F. X. Noble, ed., The Letters of Saint Boniface (2000), p. 42.

"I will show in all things," Noble, ed., Letters of Saint Boniface, p. 19.

"He was moderate," Einhard, Life of Charlemagne, III, 24.

"He thought that his children," Einhard, Life of Charlemagne, III, 19.

"Pretend there was nothing," Einhard, Life of Charlemagne, III, 19.

"He would not have set," Einhard, Life of Charlemagne, III, 28.

"Let schools be established," Charlemagne, Admonitio Generalis of 789; see translation in Eleanor Shipley Duckett, Alcuin, Friend of Charlemagne (1951), p. 122.

"God is learned about through books," Dhouda, Liber Manualis, i, 7, as quoted in Janet L. Nelson, The Frankish World, 750–900 (1996), p. 13.

"There is nothing better for us," Alcuin; the Latin text can be found as Letter 23 in Epistolae Karolini Aevi, IV (MGH, 1895), p. 61.

"Soldiers of the Church," quoted in John J. Contreni, "The Carolingian Renaissance: Education and Literary Culture," in Rosamund McKitterick, ed., The New Cambridge Medieval History II: c. 700–900 (1995), p. 709.

"Just a table," William of Malmesbury, The Deeds of the Bishops of England, trans. David Preest (2002), p. 267.

"To kill, blind, or mutilate," quoted in Janet L. Nelson, "Kingship and Royal Government," in Rosamund McKitterick, ed., The New Cambridge Medieval History II: c. 700–900 (1995), p. 399.

"As a mouse" and other quotes in sketch, Eleanor Shipley Duckett, Carolingian Portraits (1962), pp. 121–160.

Chapter 5: Division, Invasion, and Reorganization, c. 800-1000

"Cattle die, kinsfolk die," Patricia Terry, ed., Poems of the Elder Edda (1990), p. 21.

"Heroics of virginity," see Jane Schulenburg, "The Heroics of Virginity: Brides of Christ and Sacrificial Mutilation," in Women in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, ed. Mary Beth Rose (1986), pp. 26–72.

"I Ealdorman Alfred," Dorothy Whitelock, ed., English Historical Documents, vol. 1, c. 500–1042 (1955), p. 497.

"Before everything was ravaged," Henry Sweet, ed., The Anglo-Saxon Version of Gregory's Pastoral Care (1871), p. 4.

"Merry sang the monks," C. E. Wright, The Cultivation of Saga in Anglo-Saxon England (1939), p. 37.

"He was a great lover," Marjorie Chibnall, ed., The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, vol. 3 (1972), p. 217 and vol. 2 (1990), p. 263.

Chapter 6: Economic Takeoff and Social Change, c. 1000-1300

"Satan will soon be unleashed" and also "sure sign of some mysterious," Raoul Glaber, The Five Books of the Histories, ed. and trans. John France (1989), p. 93 and p. 111.

"For the first time in history," Robert S. Lopez, The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages, 950–1350 (1971), p. vii.

"Work for much less money," Husbandry, in Dorothea Oschinsky, ed., Walter of Henley and other Treatises on Estate Management and Accounting (1971), p. 427.

"They start to march," from Chansons des Lorrains, see version in John Gillingham, Richard the Lion-Heart (2nd edition, 1989), p. 118.

"London is happy" and all subsequent quotes, William fitz Stephen, "Description of the City of London," in David C. Douglas and George W. Greenaway, eds., English Historical Documents, 1042–1189 (1953), pp. 956–962.

"When you reach England," John Appleby, ed., The Chronicle of Richard of Devizes of the Time of King Richard the First (1963), pp. 65–67.

"I tell you," adapted from William D. Paden et al., eds., The Poems of the Troubadour Bertran de Born (1986), p. 342.

"In war she rode," Marjorie Chibnall, ed., The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, vol. 4 (1973), p. 213.

"To all intents and purposes," Robert Fawtier, The Capetian Kings of France: Monarchy and Nation (1960), p. 29.

"Robert de Venuiz," in Magnum Rotuli Scaccarii, ed. Joseph Hunter (1833), pp. 37 and 110.

"And so we lost our little ones," Gregory of Tours, The History of the Franks, V, 34.

"Loosed her hair," Roger of Wendover's account as quoted in Katherine L. French, "The Legend of Lady Godiva and the Image of the Female Body," Journal of Medieval History 18 (1992), pp. 3–19.

Chapter 7: Popes and Papacy, c. 1000-1300

"The archbishopric of Reims," as reported by Guibert of Nogent, see translation in Paul J. Archambault, trans., A Monk's Confession: The Memoirs of Guibert of Nogent (1996), p. 30.

"The man is a menace," Liemar of Bremen, as quoted in H. E. J. Cowdrey, Pope Gregory VII (1998), p. 105.

"Holy Satan," Peter Damian, as quoted in Uta-Renate Blumenthal, The Investiture  Controversy: Church and Monarchy from the Ninth to the Twelfth Century (1988), p. 116.

"False monk," and later, "Hildebrand, not pope," Henry IV's letter of 1076. See translation in Ernest F. Henderson, ed., Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages (1965), pp. 372–373.

"I have loved justice," Gregory VII, as quoted in J.W. Bowden, The Life and Pontificate of Gregory the Seventh (1840), II, p. 271.

"I order you to hold a free election,"Writ of Henry II, 1171, as quoted in C. Warren Hollister, The Making of England to 1399 (8th edition, 2001), p. 162.

"From memory to written record," Michael Clanchy, From Memory to Written Record,
England, 1066–1307 (1979).

"Scarcely any teachers could be found," Guibert of Nogent, see translation in Paul J. Archambault, trans., A Monk's Confession: The Memoirs of Guibert of Nogent (1996), p. 14.

"The city is expensive," and "I have recently discovered" adapted from Charles Homer Haskins, Studies in Medieval Culture (1929: reprint, 1965), p. 10 and p. 15.

"Not human but rather divine" and "We declare, announce," Boniface VIII, Unam Sanctam.

"Praiseworthy zeal," Clement V as quoted in Brian Tierney, The Crisis of Church and State, 1050–1300 (1964), p. 192.

Chapter 8: New Paths to God, c. 1000-1300

"Duties of the limbs,"Bahya ibn Pakuda,TheDuties of the Heart, as quoted in Marcia L. Colish, Medieval Foundations of theWestern Intellectual Tradition 400–1400 (1997), p. 151.

"Remember, first of all," Bernard of Clairvaux, see translation in John D. Anderson and Elizabeth T. Kennan, Five Books on Consideration: Advice to a Pope (1976), p. 137.

"We have besought you," see translation in James Cotter Morison, The Life and Times of Saint Bernard (1877), p. 174.

"Recognizing that the wickedness of women," Marchthal expulsion (1273), see translation
in Penny Schine Gold, The Lady and the Virgin: Image, Attitude, and Experience in
Twelfth-Century France (1985), p. 88.

"Seems altogether to have been," G. K. Chesterton, St. Francis of Assisi (1923), p. 45.

"Praise be to you, my Lord," St. Francis, The Canticle of Brother Sun, see translation in St. Francis of Assisi: Writings and Early Biographies, ed. Marion A. Habig (1973), pp. 130–131.

"Lord, I return to you this family," St. Francis, as quoted in Paul Sabatier, The Road to Assisi: The Essential Biography of St. Francis (1894: new edition, 2003), p. 111.

"God has taken our wives," St. Francis as quoted in Shulamith Shahar, The Fourth Estate: A History of Women in the Middle Ages (1983), p. 36.

"A persecuting society," R. I. Moore, The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Power and
Deviance in Western Europe, 950–1250 (1987).

"Had not the apple," Thomas G. Duncan, ed., Medieval English Lyrics 1200–1400 (1995),
item 108.

"Curled up against her breast," Guerric of Igny, as quoted in Caroline Walker Bynum, Jesus as Mother: Studies in the Spirituality of the High Middle Ages (1982), p. 137

Chapter 9: Conquests, Crusades and Persecutions, c. 1100-1300

"Europeanization of Europe," the title of Chapter 11 in Robert Bartlett, The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950–1350 (1993).

"We wonder greatly," Robert Bartlett, The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950–1350 (1993), p. 44..

"Decapitated intellectually," Bernard F. Reilly, The Medieval Spains (1993), p. 197.

"The Normans are a cunning and revengeful people," Geoffery Malaterra, see version in Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vols. 5–6, ed. David Womersley (1994), pp. 481–482.

"Ready to submit to nobody," Anna Comnena, The Alexiad, see translation by E. R. A. Sewter (1969), p. 54.

"When dressed in full armor," The Alexiad, p. 66 in Sewter translation.

"How far will you flee?" The Alexiad, p. 147 in Sewter translation.

"Here lies Guiscard,"William of Malmesbury, Chronicle of the Kings of England, see translation by J. A. Giles (1847), p. 296.

"Set out on this journey," Robert the Monk, as translated in Alfred J. Andrea, The Medieval Record: Sources of Medieval History (1997), p. 348.

"If you had been there," Fulcher of Chartres, Chronicle of the First Crusade, trans. Martha Evelyn McGinty (1941), pp. 69, 70.

"I weep and am deeply grieved," as quoted in Chronicles of the Crusades, ed. Elizabeth Hallam (2000), p. 180.

"An abyss so deep," Bernard of Clairvaux, see translation in James A. Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary Survey (1962), pp. 122–123.

"Great blessings," Innocent III, letter to Count Baldwin, November 1204.

"Against spiritual weakness," Peter the Venerable, as quoted in The Templars, ed. Malcolm Barber and Keith Bate (2001), p. 228.

"Rose in a spirit of cruelty," Albert of Aix, as quoted in The First Crusade: Accounts of Eye-Witnesses and Participants, ed. August Krey (1958), p. 54.

"About the first watch of the night," Walter Map, De Nugis Curialium/Courtiers'Trifles, ed. M. R. James, rev. C. N. L. Brooke and R. A. B. Mynors (1983), p. 119.

"I say with pride," Hubert Walter, as quoted in John Gillingham, Richard the Lion-Heart (2nd ed., 1989), p. 284.

"Like a robber permanently on the prowl," Gerald of Wales, as quoted in Gillingham, Richard, p. 133.

Chapter 10: States Made and Unmade, c. 1000-1300

 "Either to the church or to the Empire," Bartolo of Sassoferrato, as quoted in Giovanni Tabacco, The Struggle for Power in Medieval Italy (1989), pp. 256–257.

"A peace such as no age remembers," William of Malmesbury, Chronicle of the Kings of England, p. 434 in Giles translation.

"Christ and his saints slept," The Peterborough Chronicle, trans. Harry A. Rositzke (1951), p. 160.

"Shame, shame on a conquered king," Gerald of Wales, De Principis Instructione, in Douglas and Greenaway, eds., English Historical Documents, 1042–1189, p. 384.

"A very Christian king," as quoted in Yves Sassier, Louis VII (1991), p. 9.

"Kingship like a priest," as quoted in George Duby, France in the Middle Ages, 987–1460 (1991), p. 258.

"He is not a man," the Bishop of Pamiers, as quoted in Robert Fawtier, The Capetian Kings of France: Monarchy and Nation (1960), p. 39.

Chapter 11: Literature, Art, and Thought, c. 1000-1300

"The structure might have fallen," William of Malmesbury, Chronicle of the Kings of England, p. 346 in Giles translation.

"If those who are called," Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, c. 40.

"I believe so that," Anselm, Proslogion, see translation by Thomas Williams (1996), p. 99.

"Wild imaginations," Bernard of Clairvaux, as translated in Samuel J. Eales, Life and Works of Saint Bernard (1889), p. 565.

"I do not wish," Abelard, as translated by Betty Radice, The Letters of Abelard and Heloise (1974), p. 270.

"The grace of God," Bernard of Clairvaux, as translated in The Letters and St. Bernard of Clairvaux, trans. Bruno Scott James (1998), p. 460.

"You have surpassed all women," Peter the Venerable, as translated in Radice, The Letters of Abelard and Heloise, pp. 277–278.

"For faith rests on infallible truth," Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, question 1, article 8.

"God is always," see Plutarch's Moralia, trans. Edwin L. Minar et al. (1961), vol. 9, p. 119.

"Reasoning does not suffice," Roger Bacon, Opus Majus, as translated by Robert Belle Burke (1962), II, p. 583.

"The world is very evil," Bernard de Morlaix, as translated in Collected Hymns, Sequences, and Carols of John Mason Neale (1914), pp. 203–213.

"For on this my heart is set," see version in Selections from the Carmina Burana, David Parlett, trans. (1986), p. 154.

"Count Roland," The Song of Roland, laisse 159, taken from Burgess translation.

"The pagans flee," The Song of Roland, laisse 269, taken from Burgess translation.

"I die of wounds," Jaufre Rudel, see translation in The Poetry of Cercamon and Jaufre Rudel, trans. George Wolf and Roy Rosenstein (1983), p. 135.

"I would truly love," as translated in Troubadour Lyrics: A Bilingual Anthology, ed. Frede Jensen (1998), p. 273.

"I'll make some verses," Duke William IX, see translation in Gerald A. Bond, ed., The Poetry of William VII, Count of Poitiers, IX Duke of Aquitaine (1982), pp. 14–17.

"I will go to hell." Aucassin et Nicolette, see translation by Eugene Mason (reprinted 1973), p. 6.

"Do not hesitate to take," Andreas Capellanus, The Art of Courtly Love, ed. Frederick W. Locke (1957), p. 24.

"The power of Love," Dante, La Vita Nuova, trans. Mark Musa (1962), p. 41.

"Eternal Light," Dante, The Divine Comedy, Canto 33.

"Howling men," Abbot Suger, see translation in Erwin Panofsky, Abbot Suger on the Abbey Church of St.-Denis and its Art Treasures (1946), pp. 87–89.

"With their hooks and cables," Romance of the Rose, lines 17898–17904, as translated by Harry W. Robbins (1962), p. 381.

"Singing isn't worth a thing," and "Alas! I thought I knew," Bernard of Ventadour, see translations by Stephen G. Nichols, et al. eds., The Songs of Bernart de Ventadorn (1962), pp. 80–82 and pp. 167–168.

Chapter 12: Famine, Plague, and Recovery, c. 1300-1500

"Golden age of laborers," a loose rendering of James E. Thorold Rogers, A History of Agriculture and Prices in England, vol. 4 (1882), p. 490.

"Every fourth penny," from "Song of the Husbandman," in Thomas Wright's Political Songs of the Fourteenth Century, ed. Peter Coss (1996), p. 149.

"These were attended," anonymous letter translated in The Black Death, ed. Rosemary Horrox (1994), p. 44.

"Because they thought," quoted in Norman Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium (1957), p. 139.

"Father abandoned child," Agnolo di Tura, quoted in Philip Ziegler, The Black Death (1969), p. 58.

"When Adam delved," Thomas Walsingham, Historia Angliana, see translation in A. R. Myers, ed., English Historical Documents, 1327–1485 (1969), p. 141.

"Worked behind the plow," quoted in Richard Barber, ed., The Pastons: A Family in the Wars of the Roses (1981; reprinted 1985), p. 11.

"Cell within the heart," adapted from Raymond of Capua, The Life of Catherine of Siena, trans. Conleth Kearns (1980), pp. 46–47.

"The matter of eating," The Letters of Catherine of Siena, vol. I, trans. Noffke (2000), p. 161.

Chapter 13: Toward the Sovereign State, c. 1300-1500

"Secure a reassessment," see statement at

"Yes, our Lord," and other quotes in the sketch from Régine Pernoud, Joan of Arc: By Herself and Her Witnesses, trans. Edward Hyams (1982), pp. 195, 174–175.

Chapter 14: Diversity and Dynamism in Late Medieval culture, c. 1300-1500

"Unlettered," The Book of Margery Kempe, ed. Sanford Brown Meech (1940), p. 128.

"Confined by no bounds," Pico della Mirandola, On the Dignity of Man, trans. Charles Glenn Wallis (1998), p. 5.

"When I saw that he," Geoffrey Chaucer, "The Wife of Bath's Prologue," Middle English text found in The Riverside Chaucer, ed. F. N. Robinson (3rd edition, 1987), p. 115.

"Do not kill people," Christine de Pizan, "The God of Love's Letter," as translated in The Selected Writings of Christine de Pizan, ed. Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski and Kevin
Brownlee (1997), p. 26.

"I know that rich and poor," François Villon, in The Testaments of François Villon, trans. John Heron Lepper (1924), p. 312.

"Learned ignorance," Nicholas of Cusa, De Docta Ignoranta.

"Ruling part," as quoted in Denys Hay, Europe in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries
(1965), p. 89.

"Litle fool" and "ignorant half-wit" from Richard Wunderli, Peasant Fires: The Drummer of Niklashausen (1992), pp. 70 and 68.