Chapter 7: Popes and the Papacy, c. 1000-1300


Lay Investiture Swings

Official Vatican Website

The Very Model of a Medieval General: Matilda of Tuscany


TEST YOURSELF: Have you read Chapter 7 adequately? Test yourself here.


MAPS: Want to download a map from chapter 7?  Click here.


TIMELINES: Want to download a timeline from chapter 7?  Click here.


CITATIONS: Want to find the source of a quote used in chapter 7? Click here.



Uta-Renate Blumenthal, The Investiture Controversy: Church and Monarch from the Ninth to the Twelfth Century (1988). The best account of the investiture controversy in English.

H. E. J. Cowdrey, Pope Gregory VII, 1073–1085 (1998). The definitive biography.

James A. Brundage, Medieval Canon Law (1995). A clear introduction to a complex subject.

M. T. Clanchy, From Memory to Written Record: England, 1066–1307 (2nd edition, 1992). Studies the emergence of a literate mentality in central medieval England.

John C. Moore, Innocent III: To Root Up and to Plant (paperback, 2009). A well-respected biography, now available in an affordable format.

Hilde de Ridder-Symoens, ed., Universities in the Middle Ages (1992). Essays on both intellectual and institutional matters by leading scholars.

Jane Sayers, Innocent III (1994). Brief and judicious.

Bernard Schimmelpfennig, The Papacy, trans. James Sievert (1992). A brief and readable account of the medieval papacy. See also Colin Morris, The Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050 to 1250 (1989), and I. S. Robinson, The Papacy, 1073–1198: Continuity and Innovation (1990). For other books on church history, see especially the bibliography for Chapter 8.



Herbert L. Kessler and Johanna Zacharias, Rome 1300: On the Path of the Pilgrim (2000). This book traces the path of a pilgrim, illustrating, describing, and explaining the churches, sites, and artifacts found in Rome c. 1300.

Maureen C Miller, Power and the Holy in the Age of the Investiture Conflict: A Brief History with Documents (2005). See also Brian Tierney, The Crisis of Church and State, 1050–1300 (1964).

Lynn Thorndike, University Records and Life in the Middle Ages (1944). A classic collection that is still unsurpassed.


These listings are works-in-progress.  They are highly selective and aimed at the practical needs of students and teachers.  If you have suggestions, please send them to Judith Bennett.